2台主机极致实现双主复制架构及MMM_MySQL

时间:2016-06-01 13:15:59 来源:互联网 作者: 神秘的大神 字体:

简介

MySQL复制中较常见的复制架构有“一主一从”、“一主多从”、“双主”、“多级复制”和“多主环形机构”等,见下图;

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最常用,也最灵活的就要数“一主多从”复制架构了,其能满足多种需求,如:

  • 为不同的角色使用不同的备库(例如添加不同的索引或使用不同的存储引擎);

  • 把一台备库当做待用的主库,除了复制没有其它数据传输;

  • 将一台备库放在远程数据中心,用作灾难恢复;

  • 延迟一个或多个备库,以备灾难恢复;

  • 使用其中一个备库,作为备份、培训、开发或者测试使用服务器;

而“双主”复制架构则用于特殊的场景下,如两个处于不同地理位置的办公室,且都需要一份可写的数据拷贝;

这种架构最大的问题是如何解决数据冲突和不一致,尤其当两台服务器同时修改同一行记录,或同时在两台服务器上向一个包含auto_increment列的表里插入数据时;

而通过将一台服务器设置为只读的被动服务器,则可以很好的避免数据写入冲突的问题,这种主动-被动模式下的主-主复制架构使得反复切换主动和被动服务器非常方便,可以实现在不关闭服务器的情况下执行维护、优化表、升级操作系统或其他任务;

配置主动-被动模式的主-主复制架构的一般流程:

  • 确保两台服务器上有相同的数据;

  • 启用二进制日志,选择唯一的服务器ID,并创建复制账号;

  • 启用备库更新的日志记录,这是故障转移和故障恢复的关键;

  • 把被动服务器配置成只读,防止可能与主动服务器上的更新产生冲突;

  • 启动每个服务器的MySQL实例;

  • 将每个主库设置为对方的备库,使用新创建的二进制日志开始工作;

同时为了消除不同地理位置的站点单点故障问题,可以为每个主库增加冗余,即为每一个主库增加一个从库;

而MMM(=Master-Master Replication Manager for MySQL)则是一套脚本集合,用以监控、管理双主复制架构,通过设置一个可写的VIP和多个只读的VIP,完成故障自动转移、读负载分摊等功能;

架构设计

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服务器规划

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虚IP规划

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配置部署

双主复制架构部署

MySQL或MariaDB的安装初始化可详见博客“MySQL初识-架构-安装-初始化-连接-管理工具-数据文件”

利用mysqld_multi在一台主机上启动多个mysqld实例

数据库初始化

# 在主机Host1和Host2上cd /usr/local/mysqlscripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/data/mariadb_data_3406/scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/data/mariadb_data_3506/

数据库配置

# 在主机Host1上vi /etc/my.cnf[mysqld_multi]mysqld = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safemysqladmin = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin[mysqld1]port = 3406socket = /tmp/mysql3406.sockskip-external-lockingkey_buffer_size = 256Mmax_allowed_packet = 1Mtable_open_cache = 256sort_buffer_size = 1Mread_buffer_size = 1Mread_rnd_buffer_size = 4Mmyisam_sort_buffer_size = 64Mthread_cache_size = 8query_cache_size= 16Mthread_concurrency = 2datadir = /data/mariadb_data_3406innodb_file_per_table = 1default_storage_engine = InnoDBlog-bin=mysql-binrelay-log=/data/relaylogs_3406/relay-bin # 指定中继日志路径log_slave_updates=1 # 开启从库更新操作写入二进制日志功能auto_increment_increment=2 # 双主复制中自增长字段的步长auto_increment_offset=1 # 双主复制中自增长字段的起始值,此为1sync_binlog = 1 # 可保证事务日志及时写入磁盘文件binlog_format=rowserver-id = 11# 注意server-id的唯一性[mysqld2]port = 3506socket = /tmp/mysql3506.sockskip-external-lockingkey_buffer_size = 256Mmax_allowed_packet = 1Mtable_open_cache = 256sort_buffer_size = 1Mread_buffer_size = 1Mread_rnd_buffer_size = 4Mmyisam_sort_buffer_size = 64Mthread_cache_size = 8query_cache_size= 16Mthread_concurrency = 2datadir = /data/mariadb_data_3506innodb_file_per_table = 1default_storage_engine = InnoDBlog-bin=mysql-binrelay-log=/data/relaylogs_3506/relay-binlog_slave_updates=1sync_binlog = 1binlog_format=rowserver-id = 12# 在主机Host2上vi /etc/my.cnf[mysqld_multi]mysqld = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safemysqladmin = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin[mysqld1]port = 3406socket = /tmp/mysql3406.sockskip-external-lockingkey_buffer_size = 256Mmax_allowed_packet = 1Mtable_open_cache = 256sort_buffer_size = 1Mread_buffer_size = 1Mread_rnd_buffer_size = 4Mmyisam_sort_buffer_size = 64Mthread_cache_size = 8query_cache_size= 16Mthread_concurrency = 2datadir = /data/mariadb_data_3406innodb_file_per_table = 1default_storage_engine = InnoDBlog-bin=mysql-binrelay-log=/data/relaylogs_3406/relay-binlog_slave_updates=1auto_increment_increment=2 # # 双主复制中自增长字段的步长auto_increment_offset=2 # 双主复制中自增长字段的起始值,此为2sync_binlog = 1binlog_format=rowserver-id = 21[mysqld2]port = 3506socket = /tmp/mysql3506.sockskip-external-lockingkey_buffer_size = 256Mmax_allowed_packet = 1Mtable_open_cache = 256sort_buffer_size = 1Mread_buffer_size = 1Mread_rnd_buffer_size = 4Mmyisam_sort_buffer_size = 64Mthread_cache_size = 8query_cache_size= 16Mthread_concurrency = 2datadir = /data/mariadb_data_3506innodb_file_per_table = 1default_storage_engine = InnoDBlog-bin=mysql-binrelay-log=/data/relaylogs_3506/relay-binlog_slave_updates=1sync_binlog = 1binlog_format=rowserver-id = 22

启动数据库实例

# 在主机Host1和Host2上/etc/init.d/mysqld_multi start 1 # 停止服务操作是/etc/init.d/mysqld_multi stop 1/etc/init.d/mysqld_multi start 2 # 停止服务操作是/etc/init.d/mysqld_multi stop 2

登录数据库

# 在主机Host1和Host2上mysql -S /tmp/mysql3406.sock # 登录master1或master2mysql -S /tmp/mysql3506.sock # 登录slave1或slave2

创建所需账户(在Master1实例上)

grant replication client on *.* to '3m_moni'@'192.168.0.%' identified by '3m_12345'; # 创建MMM的监控账户grant super,replication client,process on *.* to '3m_agen'@'192.168.0.%' identified by '3m_12345'; # 创建MMM的代理账户grant replication slave on *.* to '3m_repl'@'192.168.0.%' identified by '3m_12345'; # 创建复制账户

配置数据同步

# 每次从库连接主库前,需先查询对应主库的二进制日志文件及其事件位置,即在主库上执行show master status即可,据此决定从库连接时的master_log_file和master_log_pos参数;# slave1实例上change master to master_host='192.168.0.45',master_port=3406,master_user='3m_repl',master_password='3m_12345',master_log_file='mysql-bin.000001',master_log_pos=2448;# master2实例上change master to master_host='192.168.0.45',master_port=3406,master_user='3m_repl',master_password='3m_12345',master_log_file='mysql-bin.000002',master_log_pos=365;# slave2实例上change master to master_host='192.168.0.46',master_port=3406,master_user='3m_repl',master_password='3m_12345',master_log_file='mysql-bin.000004',master_log_pos=342;# master1实例上change master to master_host='192.168.0.46',master_port=3406,master_user='3m_repl',master_password='3m_12345',master_log_file='mysql-bin.000004',master_log_pos=342;

查看同步状态

# 重点检查Slave_IO_Running、Slave_SQL_Running和Master_Server_Id等参数MariaDB [(none)]> show slave status/G*************************** 1. row ***************************					Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event						Master_Host: 192.168.0.45						Master_User: 3m_repl						Master_Port: 3406					 Connect_Retry: 60				Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000005			 Read_Master_Log_Pos: 326					Relay_Log_File: relay-bin.000010					 Relay_Log_Pos: 613		Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000005				 Slave_IO_Running: Yes				Slave_SQL_Running: Yes				 Master_Server_Id: 11

MMM安装部署

Host1主机上:部署agent和monitor

yum -y install mysql-mmm-*# 配置公共设置vi /etc/mysql-mmm/mmm_common.confactive_master_role	writer
 
  	cluster_interface	 eth0	pid_path				/var/run/mysql-mmm/mmm_agentd.pid	bin_path				/usr/libexec/mysql-mmm/	replication_user		3m_repl# 复制账户	replication_password	3m_12345# 复制账户密码	agent_user			3m_agen# agent账户	agent_password		3m_12345# agent账户密码
 
 
  	ip	192.168.0.45	mysql_port 3406# 可指定需连接的mysqld的端口	mode	master	peer	db2# peer表示db1、db2是同等级别的
 
 
  	ip	192.168.0.46	mysql_port 3406	mode	master	peer	db1
 
 
  	ip	192.168.0.45	mysql_port 3506	mode	slave
 
 
  	ip	192.168.0.46	mysql_port 3506	mode	slave
 
 
  	hosts db1, db2	ips	 192.168.0.11# 可写VIP只配置一个	mode	exclusive# 表示排它
 
 
  	hosts db1, db2,db3,db4	ips	 192.168.0.12,192.168.0.13,192.168.0.14,192.168.0.15 # 只读VIP可配置多个	mode	balanced# 表示可以共用
 ==========scp mmm_common.conf 192.168.0.46:/etc/mysql-mmm/ # 将公共配置文件拷贝至其它主机==========# 配置监控设置vi /etc/mysql-mmm/mmm_mon.confinclude mmm_common.conf
 
  	ip				127.0.0.1	pid_path			/var/run/mysql-mmm/mmm_mond.pid	bin_path			/usr/libexec/mysql-mmm	status_path		 /var/lib/mysql-mmm/mmm_mond.status	ping_ips			192.168.0.45,192.168.0.46# 健康监测时需ping的主机IP,不是VIP哦	auto_set_online	 60
 
 
  	monitor_user		3m_moni# 监控账户	monitor_password	3m_12345 # 监控账户密码
 debug 0# 配置agent设置vi /etc/mysql-mmm/mmm_agent.confinclude mmm_common.confthis db1# 因为在一台主机上启用了2个mysqld实例,故可配置2个this参数哦this db3

Host2主机上:只需部署agent

yum -y install mysql-mmm-agent# 配置agent设置vi /etc/mysql-mmm/mmm_agent.confinclude mmm_common.confthis db2this db4

服务启动

# Host2主机上service mysql-mmm-agent start # 启动agent代理程序# Host1主机上service mysql-mmm-agent startservice mysql-mmm-monitor start # 启动监控程序

测试验证

查看双主复制架构中基于MMM实现的状态信息

# 在主机Host1上[root@mysql mysql-mmm]# mmm_control showdb1(192.168.0.45) master/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.14), writer(192.168.0.11)db2(192.168.0.46) master/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.13)db3(192.168.0.45) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.15)db4(192.168.0.46) slave/ONLINE. Roles: reader(192.168.0.12)

手动进行各节点的健康监测

# 在主机Host1上[root@mysql mysql-mmm]# mmm_control checksdb4ping [last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb4mysql[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb4rep_threads[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb4rep_backlog[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OK: Backlog is nulldb2ping [last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb2mysql[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb2rep_threads[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb2rep_backlog[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OK: Backlog is nulldb3ping [last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb3mysql[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb3rep_threads[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb3rep_backlog[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OK: Backlog is nulldb1ping [last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb1mysql[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb1rep_threads[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OKdb1rep_backlog[last change: 2014/05/06 22:38:27]OK: Backlog is null

补充说明

  • 在本篇的演示案例中,前端程序若要与MySQL通信,则写库需连接192.168.0.11:3406,读库可连接192.168.0.12-15中的一个或多个,端口可能是3406或3506;

  • 在只读VIP漂移时,会导致前端程序连接的mysqld端口发生变化,所以生产环境下还是统一使用3306端口为宜;

  • 利用MMM实现了双主复制架构中的故障自动转移后,mysql并非直接与前端程序通信,还需配合使用读写分离器(如Ameoba),以统一对外的连接地址,由读写分离器负责读写的向下分配;